Congress in the Archives will feature a monthly staff post on our blog. February’s post comes from Center archives specialist, Jessie Kratz.
George Washington was born in Virginia on February 11, 1731, according to the then-used Julian calendar. In 1752, however, Britain and all its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar, which placed Washington’s birth on February 22, 1732. Americans celebrated Washington’s Birthday long before Congress declared it a federal holiday. The centennial of his birth prompted festivities nationally and Congress established a Joint Committee to arrange for the occasion.
Washington’s Birthday, however, did not become a legal holiday until January 31, 1879 when Congress added February 22nd to the list of holidays to be observed by federal employees in the District of Columbia. The act did not stipulate that employees were to be paid for the holiday—in fact, some government employees in the District of Columbia were paid while others were not. In 1885, Congress resolved this discrepancy with legislation that required federal employees to be paid for all federal holidays and made federal holidays applicable to all federal government employees, including those employed outside the Washington DC area.
Washington’s Birthday was celebrated on February 22nd until well into the 20th Century. However, in 1968 Congress passed the Monday Holiday Law to “provide uniform annual observances of certain legal public holidays on Mondays.” By creating more 3-day weekends, Congress hoped to “bring substantial benefits to both the spiritual and economic life of the Nation.” One of the provisions of this act changed the observance of Washington’s Birthday from February 22nd to the third Monday in February. Ironically, this guaranteed that the holiday would never be celebrated on Washington’s actual birthday, as the third Monday in February cannot fall any later than February 21.
Contrary to popular belief, neither Congress nor the President has ever stipulated that the name of the holiday observed as Washington’s Birthday be changed to “President’s Day.” Visit our featured documents gallery to learn more about George Washington’s Birthday!
S. 623, 1/29/1878, Records of the U.S. Senate
Happy Valentine’s Day, friends! In 1917 Congress passed legislation lowering the income tax exemption minimum for unmarried men. Political cartoonist Clifford Berryman’s cartoon for May 5 shows Cupid wondering if this new law will cause a rise in marriages, thus helping his business. Isn’t Cupid adorable?
Untitled by Clifford Berryman, 5/9/1917, U.S. Senate Collection (ARC 6011233)